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Fake News or Disinformation: Readings

Learn how to tell the difference between real and fake news.


Brown, P. (2015, September 18). Six easy ways to tell if that viral story is a hoax. Retrieved from

Caulfield, M.A. (n.d.). Web literacy for student fact checkers. Pressbooks. Retrieved from

Kiely, E., & Robertson, L. (2016, November 18). How to spot fake news. Retrieved from

Media Matters. (2016, December 15). Understanding the fake news universe: A guide to fake news terminology. Retrieved from

Novak, M. (2015, October 8). Nine viral images that are totally fake. [Blog post]. Retrieved from

Rajan, A. (2017, January 16). Fake news: Too important to ignore. [Newspaper article]. Retrieved from

Wen, T. (2017, June 30). The hidden signs that can reveal a fake photo. [Newpaper article]. Retrieved from

Research Reports/Investigations

Domonoske, C. (2016, November 23). Students have 'dismaying' inability to tell fake news from real, study finds. Retrieved from

How Google interferes with its search algorithms and changes your results. (2019, November 15). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from

Inside TikTok’s algorithm: A WSJ video investigation. (2021, July 21). Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from

Renner. N. (2015, February 10). Lies, damn lies and viral content: How news websites spread (and debunk) online rumors, unverified claims, and misinformation. Tow Center for Digital Journalism. Columbia Journalism School. Retrieved from

Stanford History Education Group. (2016). Evaluating information: The cornerstone of civic online reasoning. Stanford. Retrieved from

Shorenstein Center. (2017, May 2). Combating fake news: An agenda for research and action. Harvard, MA: Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved from

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Laura Pope Robbins
Hazy Library, Room 240
(928) 777-6686