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Cross Cultural Communication: APA Format

A guide to resources delving in global culture, communications and country information.

What is APA Format?

APA Format is...

  • Style guide for formatting text, headings, title page, etc.
  • Published in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, with the 7th edition being the most recent
  • Preferred by ERAU College of Engineering
  • Updated online at

Citing in Presentations

In presentations, you cite your sources twice.

1. You use an in-text citation if you use a quote within the presentation.  Images also get cited when they are shown, but follow different rules, which will be shown below.

2. You have a final slide of references that lists everything cited in the presentation in proper APA format.


Within the presentation, the format is:

Title, author, date, site name (URL). License

Tamarin, Bradley Tinney, 2013, Flickr ( CC BY.


Within the references, the format is:

Author. (Year). Title. Site name. URL

Tinney, B. (2013). Tamarin. Flickr.

Online Resources

Sample Bibliographic Entries

Book by a single author

Spillers, C. (2016). Confessions of an undercover agent: Adventures, close calls, and the toll of a double life. University Press of Mississippi. 

Book by more than one author:

Wittman, R.K., & Kinney, D. (2016). The devil's diary: Alfred Rosenberg and the stolen secrets of the Third Reich. Harper. 

Magazine Article, No Author Named:

The eternal quest for youth; EU Referendum Campaign. (2016). The Economist

Article from Online Journal:

Comiskey, J. (2015). How do college homeland security curricula prepare students for the field? Journal of Homeland Security Education(4), 20-40.

Article from online Newspaper:

Bogdanich, W., Williams, J., & Mendez, A.G. Mendez. (2016, June 23). The new Panama Canal: A risky bet. New York Times.

In-text Citations

After a quotation or a paraphrase, include an in-text citation.  APA follows the Author-Date citation system.

Single Author

(Spillers, 2016)

Multiple Authors

(Wittman & Kinney, 2016)

Multiple Works

(Spillers, 2016; Wittman & Kinney, 2016)

No Author

(Title of book/article title, 2017)

Secondary Sources

If you want to cite a source that is cited in the source you are using, that's called a secondary source.  You cite the source you are using and getting your information from, but you acknowledge the original source.  So, the in-text citation would credit the original source as well as your source.  Your bibliography would include only your source.

Example of in-text citation:

According to a study by Smith (as cited in Hanrahan, et al., 2005)...

Example of Reference list citation:

Hanrahan, P., McCoy, M. L., Cloninger, L., Dincin, J., Zeitz, M. A., Simpatico, T. A., & Dincin, J. (2005). The Mothers’ Project for homeless mothers with mental illnesses and their children: A pilot study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 28(3), 291-294.